AAU's - Assigned Amount Units
Carbon credits which can be traded, sold, or bought at the discretion of the holder. AAU's are redeemable for the emission of one metric ton of carbon. AAU's can be used or stored at any time. AAU's are not to be bought, sold, or traded from a non Kyoto country.
The reduction of carbon dioxide emissions being over and above what would have occurred without the project as a direct incentive for reductions. Reductions must be based on an accurate baseline.
Annex 1 Parties
Industrialized countries legally bound under the Kyoto-Protocol to meet emissions targets for the period 2008-2012.
The emission of greenhouse gases that would occur in a normal business as usual scenario.
Biodigesters take advantage of the energy that is naturally present in animal and food waste. As these wastes break down, whether in the ground, a compost heap, or landfill, they release methane, a potent greenhouse gas. In contrast to the other waste storage and disposal methods, a biodigester traps the methane and stores it for heating, cooking, or lighting. In this way, biodigesters can provide a sustainable substitute for the propane, kerosene, and firewood that many rural families in developing countries use to serve these needs.
Gas or liquid fuel made from plant material (biomass).
Cap and Trade
A Cap and Trade system is an emissions trading system where total emissions are limited across all participants in the system. When excess reduction credits are generated, these may be sold at a profit.
CCPO - Climate Change Project Office
The Climate Change Project Office (CCPO) is jointly funded by the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) and the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra). They are a UK Government advisory office set up to assist UK businesses who wish to pursue opportunities arising from the Kyoto Protocol. They provide advice and support for projects which reduce greenhouse gas emissions and which could be eligible for tradable emission reduction credits.
CCX - Chicago Climate Exchange
The Chicago Climate Exchange is the Worlds first and North America's only marketplace for voluntary legally binding emissions reductions with emissions trading and offsets for all six greenhouse gases.
CDM - Clean Development Mechanism
The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is an arrangement under the Kyoto Protocol allowing industrialised countries with a greenhouse gas reduction commitment (so-called Annex 1 countries) to invest in emission reducing projects in developing countries as an alternative to what are generally considered as more costly emission reductions in their own countries.
The CDM is supervised by the CDM Executive Board (CDM EB) and is under the guidance of the Conference of the Parties (COP/MOP) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
CDM EB - Clean Development Mechanism Executive Board
A panel of 10 elected members which supervise the CDM.
CERs - Certified Emission Reductions
CERs are emission reductions equivalent to one metric tonne of carbon dioxide. They may be used by countries towards meeting their commitments under the Kyoto Protocol, or by voluntary offsetters. CERs must come from projects that have been approved by the CDM.
CRS - Center for Resource Solutions
Responsible for running the Green-e programme and tracking REC Credits.
The idea of meeting energy needs by increasing efficiency, thereby reducing energy production.
ERUs - Emission Reduction Units
Emission Reduction units are tradable units generated by projects in Annex 1 Parties under Article 6 of the Kyoto Protocol (Joint Implementation). Annex 1 Parties may count them towards compliance with their emissions target. Each ERU is equal to one tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent gases.
EUAs - European Union Allowances
European Union Allowances - (Can also be referred to as EU Allowances or EAUs). These units are specific to the EU emission trading scheme which started in 2005. They are equal to one tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent. They are only valid for use within the European Community scheme (unless there is an agreement to link the EU-ETS with another greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme in accordance with Article 25 of the Emissions Trading Directive).
EU ETS - European Union Emissions Trading Scheme
Responsible for Tracking and trading EUAs.
GHGs - Greenhouses Gases
Gases that contribute to the natural 'greenhouse effect'. The Kyoto Protocol covers six GHG's produced by human activities - carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride.
The Gold Standard is an independently audited, globally applicable best practice methodology for project development. The Gold Standard is a non-profit foundation, based in Basel, Switzerland. The Gold Standard project method requires the use of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies that promise sustainable development for local communities. All Gold Standard projects are rigorously tested for environmental quality by registered third parties. The Gold Standard carbon credit label is awarded after third party validation and verification of the offset project.
The Green-e logo is a trusted symbol in America for high quality renewable energy. The logo, backed by the Green-e programme, is one of the leading independent certification and verification programmes for REC's.
The greenhouse effect is the rise in temperature that the Earth experiences because of the gases in the atmosphere that trap energy from the sun. Without these gases, heat would escape and Earth's average temperature would be cooler.
IETA - International Emissions Trading Association
IETA is an independent, non-profit organisation dedicated to the establishment of effective systems for trading in greenhouse gas emissions by businesses.
IIED - International Institute for Environment and Development
IIED is an international policy research institute and non governmental body working towards sustainable and equitable global development.
JI - Joint Implementation
A mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol (Article 6). JI allows Annex 1 Parties to invest in emission-saving projects in other Annex 1 countries and receive credits for the emissions saved.
An international agreement, reached in 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. The agreement came into force on 16th February 2005. The Protocol set targets for future emission reductions by each developed country up to 2012. Agreements were made to limit their greenhouse gas emissions, relative to the levels emitted in 1990.
NGACs - New South Wales Greenhouse Gas Abatement Scheme Credits
NGACs are a particular kind of carbon credit issued by the New South Wales state Government of Australia. NGACs are generated, traded and regulated under NSW law. Each NGAC abates a single tonne of carbon for 100 years.
RECs - Renewable Energy Credits
RECs represent one megawatt hour of energy generated from a renewable source. They can be sold along with the energy generated by the renewable source, as a bundle, or they can be sold separately from the energy, as a credit on paper.
REEEP - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership
The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP) is an active, global public-private partnership that structures policy and regulatory initiatives for clean energy, and facilitates financing for energy projects.
Planting trees on land that has been harvested in the past.
Energy obtained from sources that are essentially inexhaustible, unlike fossil fuels of which there is a finite supply.
SGS - Société Générale de Surveillance
SGS is one of the world's leading inspection, verification, testing and certification companies.
UNFCCC - United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
The UNFCCC is the Convention signed at the Earth Summit in Rio De Janiero in 1992. This stipulated that industrialised countries listed in Annex 1 were required to stabilise their emissions at 1990 levels by 2000. The Kyoto Protocol was later drawn up as the initial agreement was not sufficient.
VCS - Voluntary Carbon Standard
The Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS) has been developed by the International Emission Trading Association, the Climate Change Group and the World Economic Forum. The VCS has been designed to be a global benchmark standard for project-based voluntary emission reductions and provides a degree of standardization to the Voluntary Carbon Market. It creates a voluntary emission reduction credit, the VCU, that can be, traded and used by VCM participants.
A report prepared by an Operational Entity, or by another independent third party, which reports the findings of the Verification process of offset projects, including the amount of reductions in emission of greenhouse gases that have been found to have been generated
VERs - Verified Emission Reductions
Credits generated by small scale projects which are assessed and verified by third party rather than through the UNFCCC. Projects can be relatively cheap and based anywhere, unlike CDM projects which must be hosted in developing countries.
The main criteria for VER+ are in line with those for the Kyoto Protocol project-based mechanisms (JI and CDM), including requirements for project additionality. VER+ projects are not brought to registration with UNFCCC and therefore will not be accounted on any Annex I country's Kyoto balance. For projects in developing countries larger flexibility is provided on the choice of the applied methodologies, which may be composed according to the guidelines applied for JI projects.